Ciencia para impacientes

martes, mayo 22, 2007

La muerte de una estrella

Nebulosa planetaria del ojo de gatoLa vida del planeta Tierra, al igual que la de cada uno de los seres vivos que en él habitan, no es eterna. Al margen de que el ser humano esté haciendo el planeta cada vez menos habitable, existe una barrera que nuestro hogar planetario no podrá rebasar: cuando el Sol, nuestra estrella, se acerque a sus últimos momentos, habrá llegado el fin. Pero ¿cómo será ese momento? ¿Qué ocurrirá —inevitablemente— con el Sol? Aunque este no es un tema nuevo y no es difícil encontrar la información, puede ser interesante reflexionar sobre ello.

(Parte de la explicación, en inglés, se encuentra aquí, de donde se han tomado las dos imágenes de más abajo.)

En primer lugar, tengamos en cuenta algunos elementos básicos sobre el funcionamiento de una estrella. Todas las estrellas emiten energía, una parte de la misma en forma de luz visible, que hace que las veamos brillar en el cielo. Esa energía procede casi siempre de reacciones termonucleares de fusión que suceden en el interior de las estrellas. El combustible principal de esas reacciones, en una estrella como el Sol, es el hidrógeno, que se fusiona formando helio. Además de la importancia que tiene para nosotros la energía emitida en el proceso, sin fusión el Sol no estaría ahí: la energía crea una presión hacia en exterior que mantiene la integridad de la estrella, que de otro modo, dada la enorme gravedad creada por su gran masa, se colapsaría. Dicho de otra manera, en el Sol hay un equilibrio entre la fuerza explosiva en su núcleo y la gravedad creada por su masa, sin la cual la estrella estallaría (como, de hecho, uno esperaría en cualquier explosión termonuclear).

Mientras el hidrógeno abunda, la situación es bastante estable. Entre otras cosas, es gracias a ello que estamos aquí. Pero el combustible no puede durar para siempre. Cuando una estrella ha agotado buena parte del hidrógeno que se quema en su núcleo, el helio formado comienza a interferir en el proceso, llegándose a un punto en que la reacción termonuclear puede pararse. Se dice entonces, de un modo muy gráfico, que la estrella se ha envenenado por helio.

Comparación del tamaño actual del Sol con el que tendría en el estado de gigante roja

Como resultado de este envenenamiento, se genera menos energía en el núcleo y disminuye la presión hacia en exterior, de modo que la estrella se contrae y aumenta su temperatura. Alrededor del núcleo de helio, inerte pero muy caliente y densificado, comienza a quemarse el hidrógeno en capas cada vez más externas. El resultado de esto es que la estrella se expande, al despazarse hacia el exterior el lugar de la fusión nuclear. Aunque el núcleo se mantiene muy caliente, las capas más externas cada vez se desdibujan más, y la temperatura superficial disminuye. Es por eso que el color se desplaza hacia el rojo: la estrella se ha convertido en una gigante roja.

Dentro de unos cinco mil millones de años, se espera que el Sol se haya convertido en una gigante roja. En este proceso, devorará a Mercurio y, probablemente, a Venus. La vida en la Tierra, se habrá acabado tiempo antes de que suceda ese hecho, debido al aumento de la temperatura. En unos 700-900 millones de años a partir de ahora, nuestro Sol aumentará su temperatura en un 15 % aproximadamente. La temperatura en la superficie de la Tierra superará entonces los 100 °C. Pero las transformaciones en la estrella, continuarán.

Llegado un punto y si la estrella es suficientemente pequeña, la compresión del núcleo interno se ralentiza por efecto del gas de electrones libres degenerados. (Este es un efecto de origen cuántico, que se debe a que los electrones que rodean el plasma de nucleos atómicos no pueden ocupar los mismos estados cuánticos. Por así decirlo, los electrones se aprisionan entre sí al concentrarse en torno al núcleo, oponiéndose a la paulatina densificación del núcleo.) Debido a la compresión continuada, La temperatura aumenta hasta el punto de ignición del helio, en torno a los 100 millones de grados. En una estrella con una masa como la del Sol, el núcleo está parcialmente degenerado en ese momento. Entonces, de modo súbito, se produce una explosión de carácter moderado: es el flash de helio, que marca el inicio de la combustión termonuclear de dicho elemento, para formar carbono y oxígeno como productos.

No obstante, la masa del Sol no es suficiente como para que, una vez agotado el helio, se pase a la siguiente secuencia, la fusión del carbono, que produce neón. Así, unos cientos de millones de años después de haber entrado en la fase de gigante roja prácticamente todo el combustible utilizable se habrá agotado, sin que se pueda iniciar una nueva reacción nuclear. Como resultado, la estrella seComparación del tamaño actual del Sol con el que tendría en el estado de enana blanca encaminará hacia un nuevo estado, el de enana blanca, compuesta por lo que era el núcleo en el estado anterior, pero comprimido hasta densidades inmensas (para hacernos una idea, toda la masa del Sol comprimida al tamaño de la Tierra). El material que rodea a la enana blanca, que antes formaba la gigante roja, se calienta e ioniza por efecto de la radiación emitida por la enana blanca, formando complejos y curiosos motivos filamentosos, denominados nebulosa planetaria (un ejemplo es la conocida como nebulosa del ojo de gato, fotografiada por el telescopio Hubble, ver más arriba).

Las enanas blancas, que mantienen su integridad por el efecto de la presión de electrones degenerados (de otro modo, dada su extrema densidad, se colapsarían), tienen una vida muy larga, más larga de hecho que la edad del universo, dada la extrema lentitud con la que se van enfriando. Como no crean energía, por haber agotado su combustible, este proceso llevará irremediablemente al enfriamiento total de la estrella. En el interior de estos cuerpos, se produce la cristalización final.

En definitiva, una historia apasionante, sobre la cual se puede leer más en las páginas de la Wikipedia, o en las páginas del proyecto Celestia, por ejemplo. Y una buena oportunidad para recomendar esta página de la NASA con espectaculares imágenes astronómicas, que se actualiza cada día.





Alberto Soldevilla

Categoría: Ciencia, Astronomía, Física

102 comentarios:

omalaled dijo...

Las enanas blancas, que mantienen su integridad por el efecto de la presión de electrones degenerados (de otro modo, dada su extrema densidad, se colapsarían), tienen una vida muy larga, más larga de hecho que la edad del universo, dada la extrema lentitud con la que se van enfriando.

No sé cómo interpretar esta frase. Que yo sepa, las enanas blancas son estables. No es que tengan la vida más larga que el Universo, sino ... ¡eterna!

Otra cosa es que haya enanas blancas que no han tenido tiempo para enfriarse en toda la vida del Universo.

¿Me equivoco?

Salud!

A. S. dijo...

Desde luego que no te equivocas, Omalaled; ha sido un lapsus. A lo que me quería referir (pero dejé la frase excesivamente resumida; cosas de la impaciencia), es a la vida de las enanas blancas como estrellas, entendiendo aquí por estrella un cuerpo muy caliente que brilla por su elevada temperatura. Con el tiempo, la temperatura de las enanas blancas tiende al cero absoluto, y en algún momento han de dejar de brillar. Quedaría pendiente la cuestión de cuál es la definición exacta de estrella, pero ahí prefiero no entrar. No soy experto en la materia, sólo un humilde aficionado, así que tengo que respetar mis límites. Sólo aspiro a despertar la curiosidad.

De todos modos, creo que hay algunos casos en los que las enanas blancas pueden aplazar su «muerte térmica». Si son capaces de capturar materia exterior por efecto de su gravedad (acreción), como, por ejemplo, puede ocurrir en un sistema binario, la reacción nuclear se puede reiniciar, si el aumento de masa es el suficiente. La vida de las estrellas es apasionante. Muchas gracias por el comentario.

Ainhoa. dijo...

Hola!
Felicidades por la entrada... es muy interesante plantearse lo que ocurrirá con nuestro astro cuando ya no estemos por aquí.

Pero tengo una duda. Quizás sea una tontería, pero, ¿por qué dices que en 700 años más o menos la temperatura del sol habrá subido un 15%? Si se desplaza hacia el rojo el espectro de nuestro sol al irse convirtiendo en una enana roja, ¿no disminuiría su temperatura?
Gracias! Saludotes!

A. S. dijo...

La pregunta no es una tontería y, de hecho, yo también me sorprendí al leerlo. Pero primero, vamos a dar un poco de tranquilidad a la generaciones venideras más próximas en el tiempo: el aumento de un 15% en la temepratura no ocurrirá en 700 años, sino en 700 millones de años. Hay una considerable diferencia.

En cuanto a la razón del aumento de temperatura, sólo puedo responderte con lo que sospecho que ocurre en realidad; quizá nos vendría bien contar con la ayuda de alguien que sepa del tema para asegurarnos. En efecto, el color rojo de las gigantes rojas indica una temperatura más baja que las que son amarillentas o azuladas, pero esto se refiere a la superficie del astro, a la corteza visible. El núcleo podría estar más caliente. Además, hay que tener en cuenta el enorme aumento de volumen de la estrella, y que el volumen de la misma en el que se produce la fusión también ha aumentado y se ha extendido hacia el exterior (acercándose a los planetas).

De este modo, aunque la temperatura superficial del astro sea menor, es posible que el flujo de energía radiante (por unidad de área de la corteza) que se emite sea mayor. ¿Me equivoco?

De esto se desprendería que el dato, que tomé de lo que encontré en internet, no es del todo preciso: la temperatura del Sol no puede definirse como única, ya que varía dependiendo de dónde la midamos (núcleo, corteza). En una gigante roja, todavía más. El 15% se referiría, probablemente, al aumento del flujo de energía radiada.

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